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Physics Formulas

1. Density, d = Mass(M) / Volume(V) 

2. Speed, V = Distance travelled(s) / Time interval 

3. Velocity, V = Displacement / Time, units in m/s 

4. Force, F = Mass(m) * acceleration (a) 

5. Weight = mass(m) * acceleration due to gravity (g) 

6. Pressure, P = Thrust(T) / Area(A) 

7. Thrust, T = Pressure(P) * Area(A)

 8. Boyle’s Law : PV = Constant 

9. Number of images formed by two plane mirrors at an angle θ n = 360 / θ – 1 10. Magnification = Size of the image / Size of the object

11. Snell’s law : = ₁μ₂ = sin i / sin r

12. Relation between u, v and f 1/f = 1/u + 1/v

13. Equations of motion: (i) v = u + at (ii) s = ut + (1/2)at² (iii) v² – u² = 2as

14. Work, W = Force(F) * Displacement(S)

15. Work, W = F * S cos θ

16. Power, P = Work(W) / Time(T)

17. Potential energy (P.E.) = mgh

18. Kinetic energy (K.E.) = (1/2)mv²

19. Moment of force, M = Force(F) * Perpendicular distance

20. Mechanical advantage of wheel and axle = Radius of the wheel / Radius of the axle

21. Mechanical advantage of screw jack = Circumference of the screw / Pitch of the screw 

22. Density = Mass / Volume 

23. Specific gravity = Density of the substance / Density of Water 

24. Quantity of heat, Q = msΔt 

25. Calorific value = Heat produced / Unit mass 

26. Thermal efficiency = Heat utilised(Qu) / Total heat produced(Q₁) 

27. Fundamental principle of calorimetry : Heat lost by the hot body = Heat gained by the cold body 

28. Velocity of sound, V = mλ 

29. Distance between a crest and at rough = λ / 2 

30. Distance between two consecutive rests or trough = λ

31. Newton’s formula : Velocity of sound in a gas, V = √E / P 

32. Newton-Laplace formula : Velocity of sound in a gas, V = √λP / ρ 

33. Velocity of sound in a solid, V = √Y / P 

34. Refractive index of the prism, μ = sin(A + Dm / 2) / sin(A / 2) 

35. Power of a Lense, P = 1 / Focal length (in mts)(f) 

36. Relation between I, V, H : I² = V² + H² 

37. Charge, Q = CV 

38. Current, i = Q / t 

39. Coulomb’s inverse square law : F = (1 / 4πμ0)(q₁q₂ / r²) 

40. Newton’s law of universal gravitation : (i) F = G m₁m₂ / r₂ (ii) G = Fr² / m₁m₂

41. Relation between g and G : g = r² / GM 

42. Equation of motion of a body under gravity (i) v = u ± gt (ii) h = ut ±(1/2)gt² (iii) v² – u² = ±2gh 

43. Equation of motion for a freely falling body (i) v = gt …(u = 0) (ii) h = (1/2)gt² (iii) v² = ±2gh 

44. Maximum height reached by a body thrown up, h = u² / 2g 

45. Time of ascent = u / g 

46. Time of descent = u / g

47. Time of flight = 2u / g 

48. Velocity on reaching the ground : (i) v = √2gh (ii) u = √2gh 

49. Angular velocity, ω = Angular displacement / Time interval 

50. Angular velocity is given by, v = rω

51. Magnitude, L = mvr = mωr² 

52. Centripetal acceleration, a = v² / r 

53. Central force, F = mv² / r = mω²r 

54. Banking angle, θ = tan-1 (v² / rg) 

55. Relation between L, T, and g at a place in a simple pendulum: T = 2π√1 / g or g = 4π²1 / T² 

56. Distance between two successive modes or antinodes = λ / 2 

57. Distance between a mode and an antinode = λ / 4 

58. In SI system, inverse square law in free space: F = μ0 / 4π = (μ0 / 4π) (m₁ m₂ / r²) 

59. Relation between Absolute permeability (μ0) and Relative permeability (μr) of a medium : μ = μr μ0 

60. Magnetic field induction on the axial line B = (μ0 / 4π) (2m / d³)

 

61. Magnetic field induction on the equatorial line B =(μ0 / 4π)(m / d³) 

62. Magnetic moment, M = 2 lm 

63. Electric potential, V = Workdone(W) / Charge (Q) 

64. Potential difference of cells connected in series E = E₁ + E₂ + E₃ + … 

65. Ohm’s law: V = iR 

66. Resistance, R = S(1/A) 

67. Specific resistance, S = R(A/1) 

68. Resistances are connected in series : R = R₁ + R₂ 69. Resistance are connected in parallel : R = R₁R₂ / R₁ + R₂ 70. Electric power, P = V.i = i²R = V² / R …(V = iR)

71. Electrical work done, W = Vq 

72. Electrical work done, W = Vit 

73. Electrical work done, W = Vq = i²Rt 

74. Heat developed, Q = i²Rt / J 

75. Faraday’s first law : M = Zit 

76. Faraday’s second law : M₁ : M₂ : M₃ = E₁ : E₂ : E₃ = Z₁ : Z₂ : Z₃ 

77. Magnetic induction, B = μ0i / 2πr 

78. Force acting on a current carrying conductor placed in an external magnetic field : F = ilB

79. V₁ / V₂ = n₁ / n₂

80. V₁ / V₂ = i₂ / i₁ = n₁ / n₂

81. Albert Einstein’s mass, energy equivalence E = Δmc²

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Raman effect is due to

Important Units and measurements in Physics