1. **Density**, d = Mass(M) / Volume(V)

2. **Speed**, V = Distance travelled(s) / Time interval

3. **Velocity**, V = Displacement / Time, units in m/s

4. **Force**, F = Mass(m) * acceleration (a)

5. **Weight **= mass(m) * acceleration due to gravity (g)

6. **Pressure**, P = Thrust(T) / Area(A)

7. **Thrust**, T = Pressure(P) * Area(A)

8. **Boyle’s Law** : PV = Constant

9. Number of images formed by two plane mirrors at an angle θ n = 360 / θ – 1 10. **Magnification **= Size of the image / Size of the object

11. **Snell’s law** : = ₁μ₂ = sin i / sin r

12. **Relation between u, v and f 1/f** = 1/u + 1/v

13. **Equations of motion**: (i) v = u + at (ii) s = ut + (1/2)at² (iii) v² – u² = 2as

14. **Work**, W = Force(F) * Displacement(S)

15. **Work**, W = F * S cos θ

16. **Power**, P = Work(W) / Time(T)

17. **Potential energ****y **(P.E.) = mgh

18. **Kinetic energy **(K.E.) = (1/2)mv²

19. **Moment of force**, M = Force(F) * Perpendicular distance

20. Mechanical advantage of wheel and axle = Radius of the wheel / Radius of the axle

21. Mechanical advantage of screw jack = Circumference of the screw / Pitch of the screw

22. **Density** = Mass / Volume

23. **Specific gravity** = Density of the substance / Density of Water

24. **Quantity of heat**, Q = msΔt

25. **Calorific value** = Heat produced / Unit mass

26. **Thermal efficienc**y = Heat utilised(Qu) / Total heat produced(Q₁)

27.** Fundamental principle of calorimetry** : Heat lost by the hot body = Heat gained by the cold body

28. **Velocity of sound**, V = mλ

29. **Distance between a crest and at rough** = λ / 2

30. **Distance between two consecutive rests or trough** = λ

31. **Newton’s formula : Velocity of sound in a gas**, V = √E / P

32. **Newton-Laplace formula : Velocity of sound in a gas**, V = √λP / ρ

33. **Velocity of sound in a solid**, V = √Y / P

34. **Refractive index of the prism**, μ = sin(A + Dm / 2) / sin(A / 2)

35. **Power of a Lense**, P = 1 / Focal length (in mts)(f)

36. **Relation between I, V, H** : I² = V² + H²

37. **Charge**, Q = CV

38. **Current**, i = Q / t

39. **Coulomb’s inverse square law** : F = (1 / 4πμ0)(q₁q₂ / r²)

40. **Newton’s law of universal gravitation** : (i) F = G m₁m₂ / r₂ (ii) G = Fr² / m₁m₂

41. **Relation between g and G** : g = r² / GM

42. **Equation of motion of a body under gravity** (i) v = u ± gt (ii) h = ut ±(1/2)gt² (iii) v² – u² = ±2gh

43. **Equation of motion for a freely falling body** (i) v = gt …(u = 0) (ii) h = (1/2)gt² (iii) v² = ±2gh

44. **Maximum height reached by a body thrown up**, h = u² / 2g

45. **Time of ascent** = u / g

46. **Time of descent** = u / g

47. **Time of flight** = 2u / g

48. **Velocity on reaching the ground** : (i) v = √2gh (ii) u = √2gh

49. **Angular velocity**, ω = Angular displacement / Time interval

50. **Angular velocity is given by**, v = rω

51. **Magnitude**, L = mvr = mωr²

52. **Centripetal acceleration**, a = v² / r

53. **Central force**, F = mv² / r = mω²r

54. **Banking angle**, θ = tan-1 (v² / rg)

55. **Relation between L, T, and g at a place in a simple pendulum**: T = 2π√1 / g or g = 4π²1 / T²

56. **Distance between two successive modes or antinodes** = λ / 2

57. **Distance between a mode and an antinode** = λ / 4

58. In SI system, **inverse square law in free space**: F = μ0 / 4π = (μ0 / 4π) (m₁ m₂ / r²)

59. **Relation between Absolute permeability (μ0) and Relative permeability (μr) of a medium** : μ = μr μ0

60. **Magnetic field induction on the axial line B** = (μ0 / 4π) (2m / d³)

61. **Magnetic field induction on the equatorial line B** =(μ0 / 4π)(m / d³)

62. **Magnetic moment**, M = 2 lm

63. **Electric potential**, V = Workdone(W) / Charge (Q)

64. **Potential difference of cells connected in series E** = E₁ + E₂ + E₃ + …

65. **Ohm’s law**: V = iR

66. **Resistance**, R = S(1/A)

67. **Specific resistance**, S = R(A/1)

68. **Resistances are connected in series** : R = R₁ + R₂ 69. Resistance are connected in parallel : R = R₁R₂ / R₁ + R₂ 70. Electric power, P = V.i = i²R = V² / R …(V = iR)

71. **Electrical work done**, W = Vq

72. **Electrical work done**, W = Vit

73. **Electrical work done**, W = Vq = i²Rt

74. **Heat developed**, Q = i²Rt / J

75. **Faraday’s first law** : M = Zit

76. **Faraday’s second law** : M₁ : M₂ : M₃ = E₁ : E₂ : E₃ = Z₁ : Z₂ : Z₃

77. **Magnetic induction**, B = μ0i / 2πr

78. **Force acting on a current carrying conductor placed in an external magnetic field** : F = ilB

79. V₁ / V₂ = n₁ / n₂

80. V₁ / V₂ = i₂ / i₁ = n₁ / n₂

81. **Albert Einstein’s mass, energy equivalence **E = Δmc²

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